The Life of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi
The pedagogy of Soka education was developed by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi, a Japanese educator in the early 20th Century. Born in 1871 to a poor family in Niigata, Japan, Makiguchi struggled to receive education during his youth Owing to extreme poverty, his parents abandoned him at the age of 6. He was consequently adopted by his relatives. Although he was financially challenged, he continued to study while working, which ultimately enabled him to graduate from a teacher’s school in Hokkaido, Japan, and to become an educator devoted to the happiness of young people and providing equal opportunities for underprivileged children.
The Rise of Japanese Militaristic Control Over Education
When Makiguchi began his educational career in 1893, Japan was building on its military strength and imperial expansion. The Japanese government possessed excessive control over education and molded education into fulfilling the country’s national and military objectives. In particular, textbooks were standardized in a way that promoted a national consciousness of total and complete loyalty to the state and the emperor, fostering nationalistic patriotism.